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Dental Glossary

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              removal of tartar, a kind of "limestone" that sticks to the teeth due to the bacteria present in the mouth. The precursor of tartar is bacterial plaque, a microfilm of gel of bacteria and minerals which, if they precipitate (solidify), form tartar.

              it is the most frequent malocclusion and manifests itself with overlapping of the teeth; it is due to insufficient space for correct dental positioning and often requires extractions to align the teeth.

               it is the absence of a tooth, the germ of the permanent tooth is completely missing. It is very common in the upper lateral incisors or second premolars. It is generally a hereditary anomaly and can affect multiple teeth.

                it is the cavity where the roots are housed in the bone called the bone crest.

                 is the invisible fixed appliance which is mounted on the internal surface of the teeth and which allows the tooth to be moved with the same methods as traditional fixed appliances.

                it is the infectious disease of the tooth that causes the formation of a pocket of pus near the root of the tooth and often causes swelling at the gingival level with throbbing pain and requires antibiotic therapy.

                    orthodontic equipment, generally removable, which has the purpose of promoting the development of the mandible and arresting maxillary growth in class 2, the opposite in class 3.

                extraction of one or more  teeth.

                     deep enamel erosion with destruction of the dental material caused by pathogenic germs present in the oral cavity and which proliferate in the presence of food residues rich in sugars.

                     is the collection of radiographic examinations (panoramic x-ray, teleradiography of the skull), of the cephalometric trace and of the examination of the plaster models from which the orthodontist needs to make the diagnosis.

                    classically it is a branch of dentistry that treats teeth without affecting the canals. Such as "fillings". Some classifications also include dental therapies that affect canals, that is, devitalizations.

                    fixed prosthesis in different variants of alloys.

                     the part  of the natural tooth appears whitish and visible, composed of enamel. 

                    o devitalization is the treatment that is carried out on teeth that have lost their vitality due to a trauma or a disease of the pulp resulting from a deep caries; consists in cleaning the pulp canal and filling it with healing material.

Ankylosed tooth:
  it is a tooth which is blocked at the moment of eruption and which does not move and is ossified; complex and very effective maneuvers are required by the orthodontist to be able to reposition him in the normal seat and the success of the operation is not always guaranteed.

Tooth included:
  it is a tooth that has not managed to come out spontaneously and remains inside the gum or bone; this pathology affecting the canines or incisors is very common.

Supernumerary tooth:
  it is an extra tooth and is often found in the upper arch in correspondence with the central incisors, but it can also occur in other districts and in multiple ways.

Deciduous dentition:
  it is the dentition of small children (2-5 years) and is normally composed of 20 milk teeth, which will then be replaced by permanent teeth.

Mixed dentition:
  it is the dentition of school-age children (6-12 years) and is made up of milk teeth and permanent teeth; it is constantly evolving and normally the complete exchange ends between 12 and 13 years.

Permanent teething:
  it is the definitive dentition of adults, it is normally composed of 32 teeth, including wisdom teeth, and ends at the age of about 20 years.

Dental diastemas:
  they are excessive spaces between the teeth and are often due to a muscular imbalance sustained by an excessive lingual thrust or by teeth that are too small in relation to the space available on the arch.

  branch of dentistry that deals with care  of teeth with canal treatment. This branch includes what is commonly called "devitalization". 

Cephalometric examination:
  it is an analysis that is carried out on teleradiography and involves the detection of angles and linear measurements on planes traced on the teeth, bone structures and soft tissues. It is used by the orthodontist to study the case and formulate a correct orthodontic diagnosis.

Fluorine prophylaxis:
  procedure that involves the application of fluoride gel on the permanent teeth of children in order to favor the formation of fluorohydroxyapatite on the surface enamel of the permanent teeth making it much more robust and therefore less susceptible to caries.

Germectomy of the eighth or wisdom teeth:
  it is that intervention to extract the germs of wisdom teeth that is generally carried out at a young age to prevent the wisdom teeth from creating unwanted displacements on the final dentition.

Home oral hygiene:
  set of maneuvers suitable for removing food residues from the dental surface by using brushing plus appropriate instruments (dental floss, single tuft brush, pipe cleaners, etc ...).

Professional oral hygiene:
  set of mechanical maneuvers performed by the dentist or dental hygienist to remove tartar and stains caused by smoke or pigments contained in many foods from the tooth surface.
Implantology: the branch of dentistry that aims at the recovery of dental elements by inserting implants or screws into the bone.

Dentin hypersensitivity:
  it is an annoying and painful phenomenon that affects the teeth when the dentin is uncovered and which manifests itself with the intake of hot, cold or acidic foods. It can be reduced by using desensitizing substances or by painting the dentinal surface with dentinal tubule sealing substances.

  it is constituted by the presence of teeth much larger than normal and generally determines a situation of dental crowding.

Dental malocclusion:
  Abnormal position of the teeth which causes functional and aesthetic disturbances.

Skeletal malocclusion:
  Position anomaly of the bone bases of the maxillofacial complex which causes functional disorders and aesthetic damage.

  the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the teeth and related anatomical structures.

Orthodontics or orthodontics:
  Discipline of dentistry that deals with the correction of dental and skeletal malocclusions through the use of removable or fixed equipment.

Periodontal disease:
  it is an inflammatory or degenerative disease that affects the supporting tissues of the tooth, i.e. bone, ligament and gum.

Dental bacterial plaque:
  accumulation of food debris on the tooth surface which is colonized by pathogenic bacteria.

Mandibular progenism or Class 3:
  it is that skeletal anomaly characterized by excessive development of the mandible, excessive protrusion of the chin and insufficient growth of the maxillary bone. It is difficult to correct with orthodontic treatment and often has to be resolved with maxillofacial surgery (resection of the jaw).

Maxillary prognathism or Class 2:
  it is that skeletal anomaly characterized by an excessive protrusion of the maxilla or a mandibular growth deficit. It can often be corrected with orthodontic-orthopedic treatment as long as it is possible to intervene in the developmental age. If the defect is diagnosed in adulthood, surgery is needed to correct it.

  artifacts created by the dental technician. Fixed when inserted permanently, such as "crowns" or the popular term "capsules". Mobile if it can be removed by the patient, for example so-called "braces" or "dentures".

  it is the inflammatory disease of the dental pulp, it causes a throbbing and throbbing pain that does not give respite and requires immediate dental intervention. Due to this inflammation, the tooth generally loses its vitality and must be devitalized.

Intraoral radiography:
  small radiograph that visualizes one or two dental elements and is useful in the fine diagnosis of the single tooth and of the supporting tissues. It can be performed in series including all the dentition (radiographic status).

Skeletal network:
  type of mobile prosthesis.

Gingival retraction:
  it is the most obvious sign of periodontal disease and causes aesthetic damage if it affects the front teeth, as well as causing dental hypersensitivity.

Panoramic x-ray or Orthopantomography:
  it is the x-ray of the dental arches which is used to visualize the teeth and the supporting bone tissues and to help in the dental and orthodontic diagnosis.

Dental whitening:
  application of a gel containing carbamide or hydrogen peroxide on the dental surface which, assisted by the simultaneous application of white light, causes the whitening of teeth that are too yellow or have undergone pathological coloring.

  type of mobile prosthesis.

  it consists of calcareous concretions on the tooth surface caused by calcification of the dental plaque due to poor oral hygiene.

Teleradiography of the skull:
  is the lateral projection radiography of the skull and allows to visualize the bone, dental and soft tissues. With this examination the orthodontist puts the dentition in relationship with the hard and soft tissues of the patient and can make a more precise and targeted orthodontic diagnosis.

Healing abutment:
  it is a cap that is temporarily applied by screwing it onto the implanted dental root whose purpose is to promote the healing and adaptation of the soft gingival tissues that will surround the final dental crown.

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